Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 1996 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Introduction: Political and country risks: Financial institutions and business organizations operate its business activities abroad in order to diversify and expand their sources of revenue and profitability. Organizations that make investment in a foreign market either in the form of equity or assets are exposed to risks that may arise either from an act of the host government or from other external political events taking place in that country, these risks include social, political and economic conditions and events that imposes negative impact on the financial performance and profitability of foreign organizations. Types of political and country risks: The following are the main types of political and country risks that may affect the business performance of an international organization operating in foreign countries. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "International businesses often do encounter political and country risks" essay for you Create order Nationalization or deprivation: Nationalization is a process whereby a government takeover privately owned industries, corporations and resources with or without compensation. Nationalization is a political risk which makes it very difficult or impossible for international organizations to invest in a country where businesses are exposed to such risk. In past governments have nationalized highly profitable industries on the ground that it does not want foreign ownership of its valuable resources for instance in 2006 the Bolivian government nationalized the countrys oil and natural gas industries. Similarly in January 2007 the Government of Venezuela announced to nationalize firms in two major sectors of the countrys economy i.e. telecommunications and electricity. In November 2009 the president of Venezuela announced that he will nationalize banks in the country. Forced divestiture: forced divestiture another type of country risk in which an international firm is forced to divest its business operation, an example of forced divestiture is the Indonesian subsidiary of French retail giant Carrefour which has been ordered to sell the 75% stake it acquired in smaller rival Alfa Retailindo in January 2008. Gradual expropriation: Expropriation means a quick action of government to seize the assets of foreign entity, but in gradual expropriation a single international company is targeted by the host government. Gradual or creeping expropriation involves slow and gradual removal of property rights by way of tax increase on profits to make a foreign business less profitable, increase in property tax, instituting increasing barriers, changing the proportion of ownership which must be held locally. In gradual expropriation the ownership title of business remains in the name of foreign investor but the right to use the business is diminished as a result of the government interference. An example of gradual expropriation is when China announced a policy restricting the property rights of domestic and foreign automakers to transfer their ownership or enter into strategic alliance in China, by banning the sale or transfer of manufacturing licenses by bankrupt or failing automakers. Similarly in Tecinicas Medioambientales Tecmed S.A. V. The United Mexican States it was declared that the Mexican government has committed expropriation because of non-renewal of a license necessary to operate the landfill. Currency inconvertibility and exchange: Currency inconvertibility means a situation where one currency can not be converted or exchanged into foreign currency. This is another political risk for an organization operating its business activities abroad. In such case a foreign government may restrict the right of foreign firms to repatriate profits to their home country and all profits remain in the foreign country. Inconvertibility of currency may arise due to passing new legislation or administrative delays. In administrative delays the bureaucracy in a foreign country takes more time in currency conversion and creates a financial burden upon foreign companies. Some countries issues inconvertible currency for instance Cuban peso in order to protect its citizens from perceived capitalist infiltration, similarly domestic regulators may consider foreign currency inconvertible in order to protect local investors from bad investment decision i.e. hyperinflation of currency. Termination of fuel supply agreements: Termination of fuel supply agreement is another political risk for an international organization functioning in a foreign country. A foreign company whose business activities are solely dependent upon fuel supply under an agreement with the host government, or with the host company and when such agreement is terminated than in such circumstances the company will face major problem in continuing its business in such foreign country. Confiscation: Confiscation of international business is a severe form of political risks where host government seizes the assets of a foreign company without compensation. The U.S. 1996 Helms-Burton Law entitles the U.S. companies to sue companies from other countries that use property confiscated from U.S. companies following Cubas communist revolution in 1959. But the U.S. government waived this law repeatedly in order to maintain good relations with other countries. Terrorism and kidnapping: Kidnapping and other terrorist activities are means of making political statements. Small groups unhappy about the current political or social situation can resort to terrorist tactics to fulfill their demands. 9/11 tragedy is a prominent example. These groups may target the executives of large international companies for kidnapping and taking of hostages in order to fund their terrorist activities. The current political instability, terrorist activities and internal conflicts in Pakistan is a good example, where an international firm is exposed to a verity of threats arising from such activities and makes it impossible for such firm to operate business effectively and increase its profitability. Policy changes: Furthermore good relationship between the host government and international companies is of vital importance for operating a successful and profitable business and any political change that modify the anticipated effect and worth of a given economic action by changing the likelihood of achieving business objectives than it affects international businesses to a greater extent and the governments hard and fast new policies can create huge problems for international companies. Contractual frustration: Frustration of contract means legal termination of contract between the parties because of unforeseen circumstances which makes the performance of such contract practically impossible. These circumstances include, accident, change in law, sickness of one of the parties and interference from third party etc. In international business perspective companies that enter into trade agreements for export or import of goods or services either with government or private entities in foreign countries are often exposed to underlying political risks. Such contract may be frustrated at any time for a number of political reasons that are beyond the control of the parties. Transfer: Transfer risks take place when host government policies imposes limitation on the transfer of capital, payments, production, people and technology in and out of country i.e. imposing tariffs or restrictions on import and export, repatriation of capital or remittance of dividend etc. Trade disruptions: Devaluation: Screening for political risks: In order to operate successful business activities overseas it is very important for international companies to identify, analyze, measure and manage those political and country risks that are encountered by such company. Analysis of political risks: In order to analyze political risks, these are categorizes in two levels according to their nature, severity and intensity i.e. Macro political risk analysis and micro political risk analysis. Macro political risk analysis: This is an analysis that observes major political decisions likely to affect all businesses in a country. Macro risk factors include freezing the movement of assets out of the host country, limiting the remittance of profits or capital, currency devaluation, refusing to perform contractual obligations previously signed with the MNCs, industrial piracy (counterfeiters), political disorder and government corruption. Micro political risk analysis: This is an analysis that is directed towards government policies and decisions that influence selected sectors of the economy or specific foreign businesses in the country. The examples are selective discrimination, industry regulation, imposition of taxes on specific types of activity, restrictive local laws and host government policies that promote exports and discourage import. Management of political risks: Political risks can be managed through applying different strategies i.e. avoidance, reduction or shifting of risk and post commitment practices. Avoidance: If any enterprise realizes that making investment in a country will expose such enterprise to political risks the most simple strategy to keep away from such political risks is not to invest in such country and to go somewhere else, this is pre-commitment strategy that can be used before the commencement and making any final commitment. Reduction or shifting of risk: Another way of managing political risk is that a foreign company can implement a financial structure that shifts risks to local creditors and shareholders. Similarly contracts can be designed whereby a force majeure clause is included to revise and free contractual parties from their contractual obligations in case of any violence, coup, insurrection and long-term trade disruption etc. Post-commitment practices: Post-commitment practices mean adoption of strategies after making investment and commencement of business activities in overseas market. This kind of strategy takes various forms i.e. modification of employment or the ownership of the business, minority interest, designing operational structure, diversification and taking insurance policy. Modification of employment or the ownership of the business: If a foreign firms top management is controlled by local nationals or their ownership is significant or establishing of a joint venture of 50-50 ownership with a local firm than the host government would have less incentive to nationalize such business. Minority interest: Another useful strategy of managing political risks is to adopt minority interest in the business. Designing operational structure: Designing the operational structure of business in a way that attracts the inflow of foreign exchange in the host country and establishing good relations and close cooperation of management with the host government will also safeguard such firm from any threat from the host government. Diversification: If any political risk is encountered by a foreign firm while operating business activities overseas the best way is to diversify and expand its business operation into other countries that are not exposed to such type of risks. Taking insurance policy: Moreover to avoid any kind of loss that can be inflicted due to any political or country risk the company can go for insurance policy but it is very expensive and can minimize the profitability of such firm. conclusion: Catherine Rampell, When Government Takes Over Industries in Trouble, The New York Times, January 21, 2009: Available https://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/22/business/worldbusiness/22poundbox.html Caracas, Chavez to nationalize strategic sectors, The Washington Times, Tuesday, January 9, 2007: Available https://washingtontimes.com/news/2007/jan/09/20070109-122511-8759r Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez threatens to nationalize banks, The Times of India, International Business, 30 November 2009: Available https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/biz/international-business/Venezuelan-President-Hugo-Chavez-threatens-to-nationalize-banks/articleshow/5282995.cms Business Monitor International, Carrefour forced to divest Alfa Retailindo Stake, Indonesia- Mass Srocery Retail, Nov 5 2009: Available https://store.businessmonitor.com/article/302304 John OConnell., Creeping Expropriation, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management. Blackwell Publishing,. Blackwell Reference Online. 22 December 2009: Available https://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9780631233176_chunk_g97806312349376_ss1-156#citation Leon. P (2009) Creeping Expropriation of Mining Investments: an African Perspective, Journal of Energy Natural Resources Law, Vol 27 No 4 2009, p 598: Available https://www.webberwentzel.com/wwb/action/media/downloadFile?media_fileid=5879 Dr. Leonard. M (2004), China, Country Briefing, June 7, 2004, Creeping Expropriation, Threats to Property Rights, And Rising Economic Risk: Remember Communism? AON Trade Credit Inc: Available https://www.offshoregroup.com/newsfiles/chinabriefing.pdf Tecinicas Medioambientales Tecmed S.A. V. The United Mexican States, International Centre for Settlement of Investment of Disputes (May 29, 2003) Case No. ARB (AF)/00/2: Available https://icsid.worldbank.org/ICSID/FrontServlet?requestType=CasesRHactionVal=showDocdocId=DC602_EncaseId=C186 John OConnell., Currency Inconvertibility, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management. Blackwell Publishing,. Blackwell Reference Online. 22 December 2009: Available https://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9780631233176_chunk_g97806312349376_ss1-191#citation Inconvertibility, Financial Dictionary: Available https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Inconvertibility Wild. J. J. et al (2008) International business the challenges of globalization, 4th edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey p 97 Wild. J. J. et al (2008) International business the challenges of globalization, 4th edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey p96. Frustration of contract, Business Dictionary: Available https://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/frustration-of-contract.html olitical Risks Briefing for Contract Frustration, Marsh an MMC company, July 2001, p 1: Available https://www.global.marsh.com/documents/contractFrustration.pdf
Monday, May 18, 2020
Research Evaluation: Ã¢â¬ËTo what extent do familial factors contribute to the development of anxiety disorders?Ã¢â¬â¢ Written in the form of a biological report, the research study suggested that the extent in which familial factors contribute to the development of anxiety disorders is dependent on the experiences and health of an individual, and/or their ancestors. To determine the factors appropriate to the question, the term Ã¢â¬Ëanxiety disorderÃ¢â¬â¢ had to be defined, leading to the understanding that it is a consistent and excessive anxious behaviour (Anxiety Disorders, n.d.), where individuals are in a Ã¢â¬Å"future-oriented mood stateÃ¢â¬ (cited in Craske et al., 2011). This knowledge formed the foundation for the arguments. Familial factors included behavioural epigenetics, a genetically predisposed gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficiency, as well as a serotonin deficiency and FKBP5 variants, both of which are induced by childhood abuse. In contrast, a sedentary lifestyle and poor dietary habits were other factors that influenced the development of anxiety disorders. 1. Evaluation of Research Processes 1.1. Online: Science articles from news/magazine websites Science articles obtained from news and magazine websites were highly valid to my project, as they contained updated facts, findings, and hypotheses regarding the biological and neurological familial factors that may influence the development of anxiety disorders, providing insightful arguments. Overall, the science articlesShow MoreRelatedFactors Affecting The Development Of Anxiety Disorders1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesResearch Outcome: Ã¢â¬ËTo what extent do familial factors contribute to the development of anxiety disorders?Ã¢â¬â¢ 1.0 Introduction Anxiety disorders are forms of psychiatric illnesses that result from consistent and excessive anxiety, marked by an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional and/or physical anguish. Familial factors can heavily contribute to the development of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s anxiety disorder/s, when their genealogy possess a history of traumatic experiences such as childhood abuse. Studies of behavioural epigeneticsRead MoreNeuroticism Is A Dimension Of Temperament That Can Potentially Play A Role1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdimension of temperament that can potentially play a role in disorders. Barlow and colleagues (2014) provide an understanding of this role, through the triple vulnerability theory. The theory incorporates: general biological vulnerability, general psychological vulnerability, and specific psychological vulnerability all interacting in the development of an emotional disorder (or neuroticism itself), particularly anxiety and mood disorders. Neuroticism is the tendency to experience frequent, intenseRead MoreVision, Skin, and Diabetes Are Middle-Aged Concerns Essay1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn addition, the ability to sense touch, pressure, vibration, heat and cold may be reduced. This is why the risks for skin injury increase. Aging skin repairs more slowly than younger skin, which is why wound healing is much slower. One of the factors that may affect healing is diabetes. Most type 2 diabetes occurs n the middle-aged adults, frequently after age 45. According to American Heart Association, over 230,000 U.S. deaths per year contributed by Diabetes. Many of the Type 2 diabetesRead MoreA Study On Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNeurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, which typically emerge in children and adolescents, have been extensively investigated worldwide for decades. The pathogenesis and mechanism remained unclear, and no effective treatment has been identified so far. Recently, a variety of studies identified prenatal stress (PS) as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental socioemotional disorders (Khashan et al., 2008, Kinney et al., 2008, RonaldRead MoreSeparation Anxiety : A Normal Part Of Childhood Development1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Separation Anxiety often known as SAD refers to a developmental stage in which a child experiences an xiety due to separation from the primary caregiver (usually the mother). It is considered to be a normal part of childhood development. The normal stage occurs around eight months of age and can last up until the child is fourteen months old. Babies and toddlers are not the only ones that suffer from this disorder. When people would see children crying once their parents would hand them to someoneRead MoreAdolescents And Adolescent Multiethnic Populations : Challenges And Opportunities For Enhancing Knowledge And Practice1148 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnxiety in Children Cooley, M. R., Boyce, C. A. (2004). An introduction to assessing anxiety in child and adolescent multiethnic populations: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing knowledge and practice. Journal of Clinical Child Adolescent Psychology, 33(2), 210-215. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_1 This article is an introduction to the larger project titled Ã¢â¬Å"Assessing Anxiety in Child and Adolescent Multiethnic PopulationsÃ¢â¬ . Cooley and Boyce (2004) present an overview of anxiety symptomsRead MoreWhat are Anxiety Disorders?1593 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages ANXIETY DISORDERS Introduction: Anxiety disorders are a constellation of mental disorders which is marked by extreme feelings of apprehension and trepidation. It is a syndrome which has both physical and psychological modules. Psychological symptoms include anxiety that is beyond the control of the subject, impatience, disturbed sleep patterns, difficulty in staying focused, and hypervigilance. Physical symptoms include sweating, palpitations and dry mouth. Although a bit of apprehension isRead MoreSocial Anxiety Disorder : Social Phobia Disorder1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocial anxiety is Ã¢â¬Å"a fear of humiliation or of being judged by others, and an avoidance of social situations where attention centers on the individualÃ¢â¬ (Martis). According to the Social Anxiety Institute, social anxiety has become the third largest psychological disorder, following depression and alcoholism (Richards). Commonly, victims of this social phobia have problems pursuing social environments, interactions, and relationships (Ã¢â¬Å"Social Anxiety DisorderÃ¢â¬ ). The failure to fulfill daily requirementsRead MoreThe Abuse Of Drugs And Alcohol1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescan negatively affect their childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. By professionals being educated about the negative affects, they can relay this information to substance abusers in order to hopefully curb parents who use substances. Parental substance abuse negatively affects a childÃ¢â¬â¢s physical, mental, and psychosocial development. Substance abuse affects on childÃ¢â¬â¢s physical development. A parentÃ¢â¬â¢s substance abuse habits may negatively affect a childÃ¢â¬â¢s physical development and this can begin before the childRead MoreSocial Anxiety And Its Effects On The World1738 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeing specific to certain things or situations. Social anxiety is listed differently in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), with criteria almost identical to those of social phobia with the exception that the fear be out of proportion in frequency and/or duration (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Its symptoms range from blushing and profuse sweating to heart palpitations and panic attacks. Social anxiety is one of the top psychological problems in the United
Thursday, May 14, 2020
SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s taste for psychoactive substances is attested to in the earliest human records. Drug use and abuse is as old as mankind; humans have always had an inclination towards ingesting substances that make them feel stimulated, relaxed, or euphoric. In the past, the general population has used psychoactive substances for religious and ceremonial, medicinal and recreational purposes in a socially approved way. Our forbearers refined more potent compounds and devised faster routes of administration, which made these drugs easier to consume, which began the social stigmatization attached to varying substances. The complex causation of psychoactive substance use is reflected in the frequent pendulum swings between opposing attitudes on issues that are constantly being debated. Some examples are: is substance abuse a sin or a disease? Is addiction caused by the substance, the individual s vulnerability and psychology, or social factors? Which substances should be regulated and w hich should be freely available? Why are some drugs normalized while others are deemed unacceptable? Some substances were shut out of Western society because their production and consumption served only recreational purposes that did not align with Protestant ethic values, and did not contribute to the further development of the economy. Meanwhile other drugs, mainly coffee became a necessary staple in Western societyÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life. There are several reasons why society has come to accept caffeine (inShow MoreRelatedReaction Paper On Limitless1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe movie Eddie comes across a substance called Ã¢â¬Å"NZTÃ¢â¬ . This substance turned out to be a drug that could unleash his untapped cognitive potential. Within one day of taking the pill he was able to complete the stalled book and create his formula which later allowed him to become an enigma on Wall Street. The premise of the movie is very interesting for people who have looked at pushing their cognitive limits. This movie has drawn comparisons to the stimulant psychoactive drugs Adderall and ModafinilRead MoreEssay about Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized680 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMarijuana is a green or brown mix of preserved, crushed leaves from the marijuana plant. A psychoactive drug, marijuana contains fifty-percent more tar than tobacco. Smoking the harmful plant can damage the brain, lungs, and the male reproductive system and may es calate the effects of epilepsy and psychosis (Kahler, 1988). Within campus colleges and universities, there are a lot of students who are using marijuana recreationally. Long-term marijuana use can induce negative effects on short-term memoryRead MoreCaffeine Synthesis1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmost consumed psychoactive substance in the worldÃ¢â¬ (Ruxton How is this instead (Caffeine is especially common throughoutÃ¢â¬ ¦) 15). It is found very especially commonly throughout every day foods and consumed mostly though through coffee, tea, soda, and chocolate (Spiller 200). Many Americans participate in the use of caffeine; it is estimated that 90% of adults in the United States drink caffeinated beverages (Yang 245). How does this effect people though? Caffeine is a substance, even consideredRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespatients who are prescribed the medication. Within her article, Healy briefly discussed some health effects of the psychoactive chemical within cannabis, otherwise known as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, since her article was published researchers have discovered different chemicals within the plant which can possibly help with other symptoms. Cannabidiol, (CBD) the non-psychoactive plant in marijuana has been used to treat patients with epilepsy in order to improve their symptoms. Devinski etRead MoreThe American War On Drugs1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnationwide survey from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) revealed that 18.9 million (7.3 percent) of Americans 12 to 17 years old had used marijuana in the prior month. Cannabis is in fact an extremely popular recreational drug around the world, just behind alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco. TetrahydrocannabinolÃ¢â¬â¢s (THC) primary psychoactive effect is a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, forms of euphoria. Secondary psychoactive effects of THC are that ofRead MoreGambling : When It s Not All Fun And Games Essay1627 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGambling: When itÃ¢â¬â¢s Not all Fun and Games In the past decade, gaming and gambling in the United States have experienced a great upswing. The majority of states have expanded legalized gaming, including regulated casino-style games and lotteries, there has been a huge increase in the opening of Native American casinos and among other things, online gambling and betting has become increasingly more popular (Humphrey). While at first glance, this may seem to be a good thing, it is imperative that oneRead MoreEssay On Caffeine1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdrowsiness, headaches, and migraines. Too much caffeine can give you headaches. Caffeine has some dangerous effects that may affect your heath.Ã¢â¬ Site: www.healthline.com and www.mindbodyandgreen.com IS caffeine an addictive drug, and should it be regulated? Ã¢â¬Å"Caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system causing increased alertness. Caffeine gives most people a temporarily energy boost and elevates mood.Ã¢â¬ Kidshealth.org/in/ teens/caffeine.html Ã¢â¬ ¢ How does caffeineRead MoreReforming Marijuana: Marijuana Should Be Legalized792 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"MarijuanaÃ¢â¬ the first thing that comes into the mind is that its a drug which is illegal. Some people believe that the only use of marijuana plant is that it can get you high, which isnt true. The Marijuana, cannabis, or hemp plant is one of the oldest psychoactive plants known to man. Many people fail to realize that marijuana has a history of more than 8000 years and it has only been illegal for a short period of time. Its history dates back as far as 6000 B.C , when cannabis seeds were used as food inRead MoreUsing Vaporizing Pens Are Becoming A Very Popular Trend Essay1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescannabinoids could lead to environmental and passive contamination.Ã¢â¬ People can mix in synthetic marijuana into e-liquids and can be inhaled through a pen-sized vaporizer. Not only can people smoke cannabis out of vaporizer pens, they can also smoke psychoactive drugs such as, methamphetamine, cocaine, heroin, or bath salts (cathinones). According to Paul Tchounwou (2015), Ã¢â¬Å"Very recently, drug users have discovered a method of adapting e-cigs to vaporize a potent hallucinogen known as dimethyltrptamineRead MoreWhat Are The Seven New Dangerous Drugs1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) recently revealed that new psychoactive substances are emerging in the market in terms of both quantity and diversity. However, the paucity of data on the harmfulness and prevalence of these substances offer a challenge in facilitating risk assessment at the international level. Here are the seven new dangerous drugs that are gaining traction and notoriety: Acetylfentanyl Acetylfentanyl is a derivative of fentanyl. It has been used as a substitute
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Bullying is and up and coming topic in our society due to the affects and/or outcomes on the individual(s) that are victimized. Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior in which someone intentionally and repeatedly causes another person injury or discomfort. It is mistreatment severe enough to compromise a targeted workerÃ¢â¬â¢s health, jeopardize her or his job and career, and strain relationships with friends and family.(workplacebullying.com) Bullying can take place in many settings and throughout all age groups. Individuals are usually victimized due to what Ã¢â¬Å"societyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ perception of the way an individual should look, act, and/or feel. Sometimes bullies are not aware of their own actions, while others are. Bullying in the workplace seems to be more common everyday. Bullying is a phenomenon of unequal power. One member has power over another. In order to be able to stop and control bullying, society needs to be aware of the different types of bullying, as wel l as whom to properly notify when these instances occur. Society needs to be aware that individuals are unique and that social acceptance should be promoted with everyone, rather than societyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"ideal-likeÃ¢â¬ individuals. There are two forms of bullying: direct and indirect. Direct bullying is confrontational bullying, where an individual may confront the victim face-to-face. In the situation of indirect bullying, the person or persons responsible for the bullying may not be immediately known. Direct bullying can be veryShow MoreRelatedReview Of Literature : Historical Background Of Bullying1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBackground of Bullying It is alarming that students between the ages of 8 and 18 consider pressure to engage in sexual activity, AIDS, racism, alcohol and drug use to be less problematic than bullying. They consider the latter a far greater problem than the former (Domino, 2013). Bullying has been defined as a subcategory of interpersonal aggression characterized by intentionality, repetition, and imbalance of power, with abuse of power being a primary distinction between bullying and other formsRead MoreReview Of Literature : Historical Background Of Bullying1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBackground of Bullying It is alarming that students between the ages of 8 and 18 consider pressure to engage in sexual activity, AIDS, racism, alcohol and drug use to be less problematic than bullying. They consider the latter a far greater problem than the former (Domino, 2013). Bullying has been defined as a subcategory of interpersonal aggression characterized by intentionality, repetition, and imbalance of power, with abuse of power being a primary distinction between bullying and other formsRead MoreThe Effects Of Bullying On Different Adults People2469 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBullying can be linked to many negative effects on different aged people. Children that are bullied often experience harmful physical, school, and mental health concerns. These children are more likely to associate with depression and anxiety, amplified feelings of sadness and solitude, changes in sleep and eating patterns, loss of attentiveness in activities they used to like, health illnesses, decreased educational achievement like, GPA, standardized test scores, and school involvement. They areRead MoreReaction to the Film Ghandi Essay1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshumility, and persistence provided a much-needed foundation to deal with many of the unjust social issues of the time. There was overt racism that was exerted during British Colonialism. In order to overcome this injustice, Ghandi introduced the social phenomenon of non-violence strategy. The Indian people were not only warding off colonialism and racism; they also had to deal with internal differences. Indians, both Hindu and Muslim, were considered to be colored and therefore treated as second-classRead MorePrejudice ( Pre Judgement ) Essay1955 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe modern world as it once was but it still exists in society (i.e. During the 18 Ã¢â¬â 20th centuries Aboriginals were excluded or had great difficulty from activities white Australians were permitted to do). Prejudice leads to discrimination; the unequal treatment of people who should have the same equivalent human rights to other (i.e. sexism, racism and ageism). Discrimination is the action whereas prejudice is a feeling or behaviour. A study of 2000 international university students during 1995Read MoreJloj9400 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesof potential employer liability. To combat such liability proactively, employers should consider adopting and enforcing general civility and non-bullying policies in the workplace rather than trying to regulate aspects of employee appearance that bear little if any relationship to performance on the job. Appearance-based Cases Generally: The Unequal Burdens Test and Jespersen v. HarrahÃ¢â¬â¢s Gender-differentiated dress codes, grooming standards, and other appearance-based requirements have typicallyRead MoreGay, Lesbian, Bisexual, And Transgender Community Essay2048 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages18th century onwards, the degradation of same-sex attractions led to rigorous political changes. Specifically, the criminalization of sodomy made it illegal to engage in same-sex sexual activity (Smith, 2005). Policies have continued to promote unequal power dynamics including a higher age of sexual consent than heterosexuals (Ellis Kitzinger, 2002), a ban from the army (before the repeal of DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Ask DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Tell) (Belkin, 2003), unable to legally marry and adopt children (Chambers Polikoff, 1999)Read MoreIntroduction to Racism3331 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesthat measures the affect of racism and racial discrimination on the population of the world. However, it is significant to study t he aspect of racism, as it begets the individual to differentiate between the right and wrong such that distribution of unequal rights to different races only leads to overall destruction. The profound study of racism, discrimination and prejudice amongst the people would also develop respect for all the humans on an equivalent basis (Fluehr-Lobban, 2006). The significanceRead MoreEssay Domestic Violence2426 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesoverlooked because of various cultural practices and reasons (Burman et al., 2004). One of the cultural practices that hamper the status of women is dowry. Dowry, a leading cause of domestic violence in Asia especially IPV, has grown to be a global phenomenon regardless of all social caste, class or economic status and costs of dowry have increased. Violence related to dowry does not only refer to the payment given to the girl from their family at the time of marriage but also the extra demands upheldRead MoreHuman Resource Management Competencies2353 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesarise at any level in organizational setups among co-working employees or between employees and their managers (Bach 2002). These conflicts may arise due to various reasons; including misunderstanding, lowering expectations, professional jealousy, unequal work distribution among employees working at the same organizational level, uneven pro motional strategies, and the most importantly, due to negative consequences which one employee may has to face due to his coworker (Bamber Lansbury 1998). The
Nelson Mandela once said, Ã¢â¬Å"To deny people their human rights is to challenge their very humanity.Ã¢â¬ Human rights are the rights that are given to every individual without discrimination or exception. Simply because a person is in existence on this earth, they deserve certain rights without question. Some of these rights include freedom to believe what you want to believe, freedom to express yourself in whatever way you choose, and freedom to move freely in and around your world. Unfortunately, although most everyone agrees that these rights should be given to all individuals, all throughout history there have been occurrences where these rights have not been granted or have been stripped away from groups of people, each of these occurrences being an instance of inhumanity and cruelty. One period of history that was a devastating instance of this inhumanity is, of course, the Holocaust. People were stripped of their identities and made slaves, if not killed, for simply being who they were. At the root of it all was the idea that the victims were not human. The Nazis stripped them of their humanity in every way possible and then stripped them of their lives. While there is not a Holocaust taking place today, there are many issues in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world that mirror similar ideas of inhumanity. Jews in the Holocaust were seen as less than human and were deprived their right to life. There are others today experiencing the same. One current human rights issue that isShow MoreRelatedNelson Mandela s Influence On Human Rights945 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNelson Mandela is a world renowned activist that was imprisoned for twenty seven years in a South African prison, because of a system of racism known as Ã¢â¬Å"apartheidÃ¢â¬ which discriminated against blacks living in South Africa at the time. Since his release from prison, apartheid has since been abolished in South Africa and he was elected President of that country. Nelson Mandela had a positive impact on human rights by standing up against racism in his country as well as many others around the worldRead MoreGke 1 Task 21300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNelson Mandela was known as a world leader for his role in fighting apartheid and being the first multi-racial president of South Africa. His presidency created a significant change in the perception and building of a multiracial society in South Africa and around the world. Nelson Mandela was also known to be a leader of a c ivil rights organization known as the African National Congress. The purpose of the African National Congress was to demolish racial segregation and discrimination. The two mostRead MoreThe Legacy of Nelson Mandela1215 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"To deny people their right to human rights is to challenge their very humanity. 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By being the son of a tribal councilor, Mandela mastered the art of listening; this helped him become a successful leaderRead MoreNelson Mandela And The Social Injustice Of Apartheid1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesorganizations that took stands in the past. Nelson Mandela used both peaceful protests and armed resistance to fight against the white minority oppressive regime of racially divided South Africa. My exhibit talks about all the sufferings Nelson Mandela went through to end apartheid and brought a multiracial Ã¢â¬Å"Government of National UnityÃ¢â¬ in South Africa. Also, the main idea of my project tells how Nelson Mandela impacted the world by addressing global problems and easing human sufferings. My research focusesRead MoreThe Legacy Of Nelson Mandela1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"For to be free is not merely to cast off one s chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedo m of othersÃ¢â¬ (Nelson Mandela. History). 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Question: Importance of Business Model in the Business. Answer: A business model has the nature of logistic which is able to provide data along with evidence that describes how a business would be able to generate and deliver values to the customers. It also form of costs, revenue and profits associated with the business so that value of customers can be delivered. There is a different element of business model to create value for customers and divert payment into profits (Richter, 2013). In core, a business model of the business comprises nothing less in comparison of architecture of organizational and financial of a business. business model cannot be compared with spread sheet or computer model, although business model may well lodged in the plan of business and the statements of the income and cash flow projections. But in a clearly manner, the concept of it refers in the phenomenon to a conceptual, in comparison of financial. Figure 1: elements of business model design Source: (Teece, 2010). Business model is important for every sector; there is no need to determine certain sector for applying it. A good business model is able to gain value proposition that are captivating to customers and able to obtain the structure of advantageous cost and risks. It is able to generate significant value capture through the business that make and delivers products and services. It is required to design the business in an appropriate manner after those implementing e-commercially viable architectures for revenues to the success for an organization. It is most important if business is created at first but along with that it is important for this business to keep the model viable (Cant, 2013). It is required for business to focus on effectiveness of excellent people because they would be able to generate the sustainability and profitability. It has been argued by Teece, (2010), the concept of business model is value creation, value appropriation and innovation. Value creation is most important element of the business model. Value creation consider as major aspect in the business to attain the profit from end user For example, Amazon is a multinational company that is able to provide better services and products to their customers, it sets 14 principles within an organization and whosoever would be unable to follow these principles will be get punished by monetary or non-monetary terms. These unnecessary principles are being the reason of lack of creation that is why Germany is the country that does not prefer a single product from Amazon. Value appropriation is considers in the business in the order to gain profit or margin of the company. Two model strategies, leading strategy and rear guard strategies are being used to describe the value appropriation in the business. Innovation is the part of success of the company; b usiness model innovation is a unique concept which supports business in the term of financial viability. It has been analyzed that there are number of successful business model in all over the world, for instance, Wal-Mart, Apple, Google, Toyota, and Zara and so on. These are the well developed companies that made changes in their business model to gain more reparative position in existing market. There are nine block of business model which defines the strategy without facing any complexity. Figure 2: Canvas of business model Source: (Baden-Fuller Morgan, 2010). Cant, (2013), stated that business model as an activity system work an s the design elements of content, structure and governance. It goes beyond independencies in among activities and notions of the structure of networks. It has three elements in it activity system as content, activity system as governance and activity system as structure. Activity system of business model refers to the selection of number of activities. For instance, Banclombia has initiated activities to design microcredit for those Colombians who do not have the access of banking services. To perform the activities, it is required to business to give proper training from the top management to employees. Activity system structure refers that the interlinked of activities in the business model. Activity system governance refers that will be liable to perform the activities in appropriate manner. Along with them business model as activity system can be categorized in to novelty, lock-in, complementarities and effici ency (Dentchev, et. al., 2016). Business model as cost revenue architecture can involve key partner, activities and different resources of business. The modes as cost revenue architect focus on variable and fixed economy. Customer segment and price contribution is being considered in this business model. It forces the business to earn more profit by controlling all unnecessary expenses and provide the business new opportunities to turn business into annuities (Schaltegger Wagner, 2011). These models will be able to resolve the issues of static and dynamic. Business model is able to have impact of reducing issues on the problems. Number of conceptualization component involves in business model which helps out business to get rid of static as well as dynamic issues (Zhang Wang, 2016). There are various components of conceptualization value stream, logistic stream, internal capability factors, economic growth, market factor, competitive advantage and revenue stream. Along with that there is a conceptualized components such as competitors, technological input, system architecture and network architecture, value proposition, value creating, competitors are elements which are able to design or re-design the business model for the purpose to analyze the issues regarding static and dynamic (Sanchez Ricart, 2010). A business model is able to articulate the data and the logic that support a value proposition not only for customers but also maintain a viable structure of revenues and costs. A good business model will be able to deliver the valuable services to value customers. A business context is considered as the tool which is taken is use for analyzing the environment of working within an organization (Boons Ldeke-Freund, 2013). The choices of business model define the architecture of the business. It can be difficult for the business s to make amendments in established business model. For example, American express and Discover card have experienced to change its hybrid models where they issued cards themselves. It was inappropriate for its competitors which provide only network services, as per technology innovation American express issued credit card. Innovative business model helps out to redesign the models and provide opportunity to generate higher returns to the pioneer until and unle ss their features of novels do not copied (Bharadwaj, El Sawy, Pavlou Venkatraman, 2013). It has been analyzed that there is number of business notions such as value creation, core business, customer, management and addressable market. There is a notion of open innovation which refers that companies relying on internal ideas to make its business advance. Open innovation is the part of notion which depends on the outsiders as the source of views and new ideas to commercialize them. Addressable market is focuses on market segments, face book is the example of it, when marks Zuckerberg launched its business, and he set to have the system of monopoly on customers response and commitment. It is the most important for the business to make changes in business without hurting anyone. Value creation is the example of saving time and efforts of the customers; it comes under the performance indicator of strategic. Inventory management is essential tool for the business for bringing changes in business model because it is important for the business to know about the demand of the cus tomers. Business need to replace the notions of expertise by learns ability and innovations (Breuer Ldeke-Freund, 2014). Figure 3: Steps to gain sustainable business model Source: (Teece, 2010). As per the evolution of the company, opportunities for generating revenue at large scale arise. Manager of the organization should take initiative step as per changes in business model. It has been evaluated that business model is connected with the innovation of technology. It will certainly have impact on the decisions of mangers while decision. There is an example of Google, Amazon and Easy jet which is able to demonstrate that how business get influenced because of changes in business model. Technological innovations definitely have influences on the performance of business in desired market (Itami Nishino, 2010). It has been concluded that business model has crucial role in innovation and sustainable business. Business models make ensure to the customers or investors that they are going to tie up with planned organization. In this report the bas of conceptual is thin, but it suggests the various ways to advance the study regarding model of business. Employing more accurate notions would permit other researchers to better understand about the importance of business model. E-business model archetypes, business model as activity system and business model as cost architecture has been elaborated in this report which will give better understanding for further research. References Baden-Fuller, C. Morgan, M.S. (2010). Business Models as Models . Long Range Planning 43 (2010) 156e171. Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O. A., Pavlou, P. A., Venkatraman, N. V. (2013). Digital business strategy: toward a next generation of insights. Boons, F., Ldeke-Freund, F. (2013). Business models for sustainable innovation: state-of-the-art and steps towards a research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, 45, 9-19. Breuer, H., Ldeke-Freund, F. (2014). Normative innovation for sustainable business models in value networks. Dentchev, N., Baumgartner, R., Dieleman, H., Jhannsdttir, L., Jonker, J., Nyberg, T., ... van Hoof, B. (2016). Embracing the variety of sustainable business models: social entrepreneurship, corporate intrapreneurship, creativity, innovation, and other approaches to sustainability challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production, 113. Itami, H., Nishino, K. (2010). Killing two birds with one stone: profit for now and learning for the future. Long Range Planning, 43(2), 364-369. Richter, M. (2013). Business model innovation for sustainable energy: German utilities and renewable energy. Energy Policy, 62, 1226-1237. Sanchez, P. Ricart, J. E. (2010). Business model Innovation and sources of value creation in low-income markets. European Management Review (2010) 7, 138-154. Schaltegger, S., Wagner, M. (2011). Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions. Business strategy and the environment, 20(4), 222-237. Seville, D., Buxton, A. Vorley, B. (2011). Under what conditions are value chains effective tools for pro-poor development?. Retrieved on 19th April 2017 from: Teece, D. J. (2010). Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation. Long Range Planning, vol 43 2010. Zhang, D., Wang, X. (2016). Investigating the dynamic spillover effects of low-cost airlines on airport airfare through spatio-temporal regression models. Networks and Spatial Economics, 16(3), 821-836.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Understand the role of communication and interaction with individuals who have Dementia free essay sample
You could misinterpret a person who has dementia because you do not know the full extent of the illness. So when a service user becomes aggressive you may think they are being nasty to you when in reality it is the illness and they do not know any different. 1. 3 Explain the importance of effective communication to an individual with dementia. Effective communication can improve the quality of life for someone with dementia so try and find out the best way to understand the service user and what level of dementia they have so you can learn to communicate in a way they like (singing) Speak to family members of service user to find out how they like to communicate Read the care plan for information Speak to other carers 1. 4 describe how different forms of dementia may affect the way an individual communicates The different type of dementia affects the brain in different ways and each individual communicates their thoughts and feelings in a unique way In the early stages of some forms of dementia people have difficulty finding the right word; and in the later stage words become lost completely in all forms of dementia. It becomes harder to put sentences together as the disease progresses. Automatic responses such as Ã¢â¬Å"helloÃ¢â¬ are maintained for long periods of time. In the late stages of the disease a person with dementia may have very limited ability to speak. 2 understand the importance of positive interactions with individuals with dementia. 2. 1 give examples of positive interactions with individuals who have dementia. Have a positive interactive environment. A positive mood, tone of voice and body language will go along way to positively interact with someone with dementia. Showing affection is also a good way of creating a positive atmosphere. The person with dementia might not know who you are, but they may know that you are not a threat to them. Make sure you have the attention of the person with dementia, remind them who you are and anything else that may help them focus on you, if they are sitting sit with them, if they are standing stand with them remember they need to feel that you are not a threat to them. Be clear, donÃ¢â¬â¢t use complicated words or raise your voice. Asking yes/no questions and or giving simple choices are also ways for a chance at successful communication. Be reassuring, holding their hand often helps with communication. 2. 2 explain how positive interactions with individuals who have dementia canÃ contribute to their wellbeing. Dementia can result in a range of difficulties; memory; thinking and planning; orientation to time, place and person; communication ,learning judgement, emotion, motivation, perception, these can all have impact on mobility ,for example: remembering where to go, understanding staff so positive interaction with individuals with dementia can help them in many ways by keepin g their minds active. 2. 3 explain the importance of involving individuals with dementia in a range of activities. Involving individuals with dementia in activities is very important because the individual should gain a satisfaction and achievement and that is very important to them Keep the activities very simple and do not go on to long so the person doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel a sense of failure or they can not cope or get too tired. Activities should be kept positive and enjoyable. Doing activities can improve the persons confidence and a sense of hope. 2. 4compare a reality orientation approach to interactions with validation approach Approaches of disoriented elderly people can be distinguished in two main perceptions, Reality Orientation and Validation. Reality Orientation appeals to still existing functions and helps people to get oriented toward the reality. Validation goes with people into their inner world, where feelings dominate and facts are no longer important. In this article both approaches are explicated. Further, it is stated that measuring the effects of Reality Orientation or Validation have the same pitfalls, such as lack of adequate scales, unclear definitions of the behaviour and symptoms of patients involved, and the risk of measuring a Hawthorne effect. The author states that Validation meets the demands of disoriented people better than Reality Orientation. She argues to think in-depth about the aims of psychogeriatric care, in order to define what effects should be pursued and measured. Nursing diagnoses should be used instead of medical diagnoses. 3 Understand the factors which can affect interactions and communications of individuals with dementia 3. 1 list the physical and mental health needs that may need to be considered when communicating with an individual with dementia. Wandering Repetitive speech Behaviour Sleeplessness Paranoia Eating Bathing Dressing Incontinence Physical disability Illness / distress Learning disability Language difference Visual impairment Hearing impairment 3. 2 Describe how the sensory impairment of an individual with dementia may affect their communication skills. A service user with dementia and impairment skills will find their ability to communicate (especially orally) severely impaired. An example of this might be an older individual who would like a cup of tea; however due to dementia they have forgotten the word for tea or cup. And as they have sensory impairment (visually)they cannot see the cup and cannot point to it to indicate what they want. This would lead them to feel very frustrated at the inability to get the drink of tea and also at the inability to express their desire and thought. 3. 3descibe how the behaviour of carers or others might affect an individual with dementia. As individuals with dementia can often suffer from stress and anxiety caused by their dementia if put into a situation outside their comfort zone they become anxious, unruly and nervous. If a dementia sufferer is taken to a place where there is lots of noise you may find them very nervous, frightened this could have a negative impact on their illness. 3. 4 describe how behaviour of carers and others might affect an individual with dementia. Always remember when visiting a service user with dementia to try and keep to the same routine as it will have a big impact on the service user if you do not, example (disagree with other carer in front of a service user with voices raised ). 3. 5 explain how the use of language can hinder positive interactions and communication An individuals use of language could have a negative affect on a individual as they might not be able to say what they mean(due to their illness) they may get frustrated/nervous /angry at themselves and to others they are trying to communicate with the individual may not speak English and that could be more difficult for them, this will have a negative impact on their dementia.